Pathways of clathrin-independent endocytosis

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Aug;8(8):603-12. doi: 10.1038/nrm2216.


There are numerous ways that endocytic cargo molecules may be internalized from the surface of eukaryotic cells. In addition to the classical clathrin-dependent mechanism of endocytosis, several pathways that do not use a clathrin coat are emerging. These pathways transport a diverse array of cargoes and are sometimes hijacked by bacteria and viruses to gain access to the host cell. Here, we review our current understanding of various clathrin-independent mechanisms of endocytosis and propose a classification scheme to help organize the data in this complex and evolving field.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria / metabolism
  • Bacteria / ultrastructure
  • Biological Transport, Active
  • Clathrin*
  • Endocytosis*
  • Eukaryotic Cells / metabolism*
  • Eukaryotic Cells / microbiology
  • Eukaryotic Cells / ultrastructure
  • Eukaryotic Cells / virology
  • Humans
  • Virus Internalization
  • Viruses / metabolism
  • Viruses / ultrastructure


  • Clathrin