Adiponectin is secreted by adipocytes and has been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Vigorous training program represents a physical stress condition in which heavy changes in energy expenditure might increase adiponectin concentration in athletes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if there are changes in fasting adiponectin concentration during preparatory period in elite male rowers. Twelve rowers (mean and SD; age: 20.8+/-3.0 years; height: 192.9+/-4.7 cm; body mass: 91.9+/-5.3 kg; body fat percentage: 11.9+/-1.4%) were tested seven times over a 24-week training season. In addition to adiponectin, leptin, insulin, growth hormone, and glucose values were evaluated. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2 max)) and aerobic power (Pa (max)) were determined before and after the training period. Training was mainly organized as low-intensity prolonged training. Significant increases in VO (2 max) (by 3.2+/-1.8%; from 6.2+/-0.5 to 6.4+/-0.4 l/min), VO (2 max/kg) (by 2.2+/-2.0%; from 67.9+/-3.0 to 69.4+/-3.0 ml/min/kg) and Pa (max) (by 4.6+/-6.3%; from 444.6+/-39.1 to 465.8+/-25.0 W) were observed after the 24-week period. All measured body compositional values were similar to pretraining values after the training period. Fasting adiponectin did not change during the preparatory period. Likewise, leptin, insulin, growth hormone, and glucose values were not significantly changed after the training period. Adiponectin concentration was significantly correlated (all p<0.05) with body mass (r=-0.40), body fat mass (r=-0.33), body fat free mass (r=0.38), and leptin (r=-0.31) values. In conclusion, fasting adiponectin does not change throughout the prolonged training period in elite male rowers despite substantial changes in training volume. Further studies are needed to clarify possible mechanisms by which adiponectin might influence energy homeostasis during heavy training in elite athletes.