The occupational role of women in military service: validation of occupation and prevalence of exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study

Int J Environ Health Res. 2007 Aug;17(4):271-84. doi: 10.1080/09603120701372243.


To better understand the US military's global peacekeeping and combat operations, which may expose a growing population of American service women to challenging occupations and environments. Concordance between self-reported and electronic occupation codes for female participants in the Millennium Cohort was measured using kappa statistics. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of five self-reported potentially toxic environmental exposures or disturbing experiences among different occupational categories, while adjusting for demographic and military characteristics, including deployment. Self-reported occupations were moderately to highly reliable when compared with electronic occupation data. Active-duty and Reserve/Guard females differentially reported witnessing death or trauma and exposure to chemical or biological warfare, depleted uranium, or pesticides. Findings suggest that self-reported occupation can be used with a high degree of confidence. Occupational groups with higher odds of reporting military exposures of concern will be followed longitudinally through 2022 and prospectively compared using baseline and follow-up evaluations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biological Warfare
  • Chemical Warfare
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Military Personnel*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Occupational Exposure*
  • Pesticides
  • Prevalence
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Stress, Psychological
  • Uranium


  • Pesticides
  • Uranium