Depressive symptoms and age-related macular degeneration in older people: the cardiovascular health study

Ophthalmic Epidemiol. May-Jun 2007;14(3):127-33. doi: 10.1080/09286580601186742.


Purpose: To examine the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and depressive symptoms.

Methods: Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 2,194 persons aged 69-97 years were included in the current analyses. During the 1997-1998 examination, retinal photography from one randomly selected eye was graded for presence of early and late AMD using a modified Wisconsin AMD by Grading System. Depressive symptoms were assessed via a modified version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale annually from 1989 through 1997-1998. Depressive symptoms were defined as a CES-D score of >9 (top quartile of CES-D score) at the 1997-1998 examination.

Results: There were 338 (15.6%) individuals with early AMD and 29 (1.3%) with late AMD. Among them, 368 (16.8%) persons had depressive symptoms at the 1997-1998 examination. Depressive symptoms were not associated with early AMD (multivariable adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.97; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.69-1.36) or late AMD (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.38-3.46). Including persons using anti-depressive medications did not alter these associations (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.74-1.32 for early AMD and OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.35-2.67 for late AMD). There was no association in multinomial logistic regression models of increasing quartiles of the CES-D scores with early or late AMD status.

Conclusions: Our study did not find an association between early AMD and depressive symptoms in older people.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depressive Disorder / complications
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Intelligence Tests
  • Macular Degeneration / complications
  • Macular Degeneration / diagnosis
  • Macular Degeneration / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Photography
  • United States / epidemiology