Toxicological data are an important aspect of tobacco product characterization. In this study, TPM (Total Particulate Matter) (three replicates) was collected from cigarettes [five brands, ISO conditions: puff volume, 35 mL; duration, 2s; interval, 60s (35/2/60)], cigars (two brands, 45/2/30), cigarillos (two brands, 35/2/60), bidis (two brands, 45/2/30), and pipe tobacco (two brands, 50/2/12). TPM was extracted from the Cambridge filter pad using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Smokeless tobacco (ST) (six brands) was extracted with DMSO using an ultrasonic homogenizer. Both types of extracts were filtered and stored at -80 degrees C. All extracts were analyzed for humectants, water and nicotine. Mutagenic activity was assessed per OECD guideline 471 using Salmonella typhimurium TA98+S9 and TA100+S9. TA98+S9 response (specific activity expressed as revertants/mg nicotine) was greatest for the cigarette fabricated with dark, air-cured tobaccos. Average product responses with TA98+S9 based on nicotine and relative to cigarettes (excluding dark tobacco) were cigars, 242%; cigarillos, 238%; bidis, 91%; and pipe tobacco, 44%. ST response was not significant for TA98+S9. Corresponding values for TA100+S9 were cigars, 189%; cigarillos, 155%; pipe tobacco, 130%; bidis, 114% and ST, 34%. ST TA100+S9 response ranged from a low of 501 to a high of 8547 revertants/mg nicotine, depending on ST composition.