A systems model of training effects on performance was applied to eight initially untrained subjects who were volunteers for an endurance training program for the purpose of verifying the statistical adequacy of the systems structure. In the model initially proposed by T. W. Calvert, E. W. Banister, M. V. Savage, and T. Bach (IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 6: 94-102, 1976), the performance changes were related to the successive training loads by three first-order transfer functions. In the present study, the number of first-order components was statistically tested. A model including only one component, which had a positive effect on the performance, provided a significant fit with the performances in every subject. A second component significantly improved the fit in only two subjects. This further component, which had a negative effect on performance, was identified as fatigue. Nevertheless, a two-antagonistic component model is proposed to provide a good representation of the training responses. However, the low level of exercise demands and the inaccuracy of the fit could have impaired the evidencing of a fatiguing effect during the presently studied training protocol.