This study provides up-to-date estimates of childhood and adolescent (ages 0-19) cancer survival in Canada using data from the Canadian Cancer Registry (CCR). Cases were classified according to the third edition of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer classification scheme. Follow-up for vital status was determined through record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base, and from information reported by provincial/territorial cancer registries. Observed survival proportions (OSPs) were based on period analysis (1999-2003). The 1-, 3- and 5-year OSPs for all cancers combined were 92%, 85% and 82%, respectively. Among diagnostic groups, five-year survival estimates were highest for retinoblastoma (99%), carcinomas and other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas (91%) and for renal tumours (91%); they were poorest for hepatic tumours (68%) and for malignant bone tumours (68%). Survival for childhood and adolescent cancer in Canada has improved substantially since last reported.