The use of genetically manipulated mouse models, gene and protein discovery and the cataloguing of genetic mutations have each allowed us to obtain new insights into skeletal morphogenesis and remodeling. These techniques have made it possible to identify molecules that are obligatory for specific cellular functions, and to exploit these molecules for therapeutic purposes. New insights into the pathophysiology of diseases have also enabled us to understand molecular defects in a way that was not possible a decade ago. This review summarizes our current understanding of the carefully orchestrated cross-talk between cells of the bone marrow and between bone cells and the brain through which bone is constantly remodeled during adult life. It also highlights molecular aberrations that cause bone cells to become dysfunctional, as well as therapeutic options and opportunities to counteract skeletal loss.