Proteomic analysis of a cold-adapted bacterium, Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10, isolated from Antarctic seawater was carried out to elucidate its cold-adaptation mechanism. The cells were grown at 4 degrees C and 18 degrees C, and soluble and membrane proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. At 4 degrees C, the relative abundance of 47 soluble proteins and five membrane proteins increased more than twofold, and these proteins were analyzed by peptide mass fingerprinting. Twenty-six soluble proteins and two membrane proteins were identified. These included proteins involved in RNA synthesis and folding (RpoA, GreA, and CspA), protein synthesis and folding (TufB, Efp, LysU, and Tig), membrane transport (OmpA and OmpC), and motility (FlgE and FlgL). Cold-inducible RpoA, GreA, and CspA may be required for efficient and accurate transcription and proper folding of RNA at low temperatures, where base pairing of nucleic acids is stable and undesired secondary structures of RNA tend to form. Tig is supposed to have peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity and facilitate proper folding of proteins at low temperatures. The cold induction of OmpA and OmpC is likely to counteract the low diffusion rate of solutes at low temperatures and enables the efficient uptake of nutrients. These results provided many clues to understand microbial cold-adaptation mechanisms.