This review summarizes key aspects of what has been learned about the physiology of leptin deficiency as it can be observed in obese-hyperglycemic ob/ob mice. These mice lack functional leptin. They are grossly overweight and hyperphagic, particularly at young ages, and develop severe insulin resistance. They have been used as a model for obesity and as a rich source of pancreatic islets with high insulin release capacity. The leptin deficiency manifests also with regard to immune function, the cardiovascular system including angiogenesis, supportive tissue function, malignancies, and reproductive function. ob/ob Mice are well suited for studies on the interaction between leptin and insulin, and for studies on initial aspects of metabolic disturbances leading to type-2 diabetes.