Purpose: To investigate whether the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) polymorphisms are associated with urothelial cancer (UC) risk in Taiwan.
Methods: In this study, 600 study subjects (including 300 UC patients and 300 cancer-free controls) were recruited from September 1998 to December 2005. We analyzed the NQO1 and SULT1A1 polymorphisms by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. A comprehensive interview was conducted to collect information, including baseline characteristics and cigarette smoking status. We used an unconditional multivariate logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
Results: We found a significantly increased UC risk in study subjects with the NQO1 C/T and T/T genotypes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03-2.1). A significantly increased UC risk was found in those with the SULT1A1 G/G genotype (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.2). Subjects who had ever smoked with either the NQO1 C/T and T/T genotypes or the SULT1A1 G/G genotype had significantly increased UC risks, showing ORs of 3.0 and 5.3, respectively. Subjects carrying both the NQO1 C/T and T/T genotypes and the SULT1A1 G/G genotype had a significantly increased UC risk (OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.4-9.7). Moreover, those who had ever smoked with both the NQO1 C/T and T/T genotypes and the SULT1A1 G/G genotype had the highest UC risk (OR = 8.6; 95% CI: 2.5-29.7).
Conclusions: These findings suggest that NQO1 and SULT1A1 polymorphisms are associated with the risk of UC, particularly among those who have ever smoked.