The Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway is critical for cell survival, growth, proliferation and tumorigenesis. Among the three isoforms of Raf protein kinases, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that B-Raf functions as the primary MEK activator. B-Raf is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers with a high prevalence in melanoma, and many of the B-Raf mutations activate the kinase activity of B-Raf. B-Raf kinase represents an excellent target for anticancer therapy based on preclinical target validation, epidemiology and drugability. Several small-molecule inhibitors of B-Raf kinase are currently undergoing clinical evaluation, with others due to enter clinical development in the near future.