Synaptic vesicle proteins govern all relevant functions of the synaptic vesicle life cycle, including vesicle biogenesis, vesicle transport, uptake and storage of neurotransmitters, and regulated endocytosis and exocytosis. In spite of impressive progress made in the past years, not all known vesicular functions can be assigned to defined protein components, suggesting that the repertoire of synaptic vesicle proteins is still incomplete. We have identified and characterized a novel synaptic vesicle membrane protein of 31 kDa with six putative transmembrane helices that, according to its membrane topology and phylogenetic relation, may function as a vesicular transporter. The vesicular allocation is demonstrated by subcellular fractionation, heterologous expression, immunocytochemical analysis of brain sections and immunoelectron microscopy. The protein is expressed in select brain regions and contained in subpopulations of nerve terminals that immunostain for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and the vesicular GABA transporter VGaT (vesicular amino acid transporter) and may attribute specific and as yet undiscovered functions to subsets of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses.