Biomarkers in cervical cancer screening

Dis Markers. 2007;23(4):315-30. doi: 10.1155/2007/678793.


In industrialized countries, population wide cytological screening programs using the Pap test have led to a substantial reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer. Despite this evident success, screening programs that rely on Pap-stained cytological samples have several limitations. First, a number of equivocal or mildly abnormal test results require costly work up by either repeated retesting or direct colposcopy and biopsy, since a certain percentage of high grade lesions that require immediate treatment hide among these unclear test results. This work up of mildly abnormal or equivocal cytological tests consumes a large amount of the overall costs spent for cervical cancer screening. Improved triage of these samples might substantially reduce the costs. Cervical cancer is induced by persistent infections with oncogenic human papilloma viruses (HPV). While HPV infection is an indispensable factor, it is not sufficient to cause cancer. The majority of acute HPV infections induce low grade precursor lesions that are cleared spontaneously after several months in more than 90% of cases, and less than 10% eventually progress to high grade lesions or invasive cancer. Progression is characterized by the deregulated expression of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 in infected basal and parabasal cells. Novel biomarkers that allow monitoring these essential molecular events in histological or cytological specimens are likely to improve the detection of lesions that have a high risk of progression in both primary screening and triage settings. In this review, we will discuss potential biomarkers for cervical cancer screening with a focus on the level of clinical evidence that supports their application as novel markers in refined cervical cancer screening programs.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chromosomal Instability
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Female
  • Genes, Viral
  • Humans
  • Mass Screening / methods*
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Oncogenes
  • Papillomaviridae / genetics
  • Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification
  • Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / genetics
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • Vaginal Smears


  • Biomarkers
  • Biomarkers, Tumor