Hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and chemical compounds targeting the HIF-alpha hydroxylases

Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(17):1853-62. doi: 10.2174/092986707781058850.


The hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) are central components in the cellular responses to a lack of O(2), i.e. hypoxia. Homologs of the HIF system (HIF-1, -2 and -3) are detectable in all nucleated cells of multicellular organisms. Active HIFs are heterodimers (HIF-alpha/ beta). In hypoxia the O(2)-labile alpha-subunit is translocated to the nucleus where it binds HIF-beta. Over 100 HIF target genes have already been identified. The translational products of these genes increase O(2) delivery to hypoxic tissues, such as erythropoietin which stimulates the production of red blood cells, and they adapt cellular metabolism to hypoxia, such as glycolytic enzymes. HIFs are inactive in normoxia because of O(2)-dependent enzymatic hydroxylation and subsequent degradation of their alpha-subunit. Three HIF-alpha prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1, 2 and 3) initiate proteasomal degradation while an asparaginyl hydroxylase (factor inhibiting HIF-1, FIH-1) inhibits the function of the C-terminal transactivation domain of HIF-alpha. In addition to O(2) and 2-oxoglutarate, the HIF-alpha hydroxylases require Fe(2+) and ascorbate as co-factors. Products of glycolysis can act as endogenous inhibitors of HIF hydroxylases which may lead to sustained activation of HIFs in cancer cells. The cofactor requirements define the routes to inhibition of the enzymes when HIF activation is desirable. In particular, 2-oxoglutarate analogues have emerged as promising tools for stimulation of erythropoiesis and angiogenesis ("HIF-stabilizers"). However, as the HIF system promotes the transcription of many genes, and other 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases are likely to be inhibited by the same analogues, careful evaluation of the inhibitors seems mandatory prior to their clinical use.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Citric Acid Cycle / drug effects
  • Citric Acid Cycle / physiology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemical synthesis
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Hydroxylation
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 / biosynthesis*
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 / metabolism
  • Iron / deficiency
  • Ketoglutaric Acids / pharmacology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
  • Ketoglutaric Acids
  • Transcription Factors
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Iron
  • Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase