Residual symptoms in bipolar disorder: the effect of the last episode after remission

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Oct 1;31(7):1387-92. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.06.003. Epub 2007 Jun 14.


In this study it is aimed to assess interepisode residual symptoms in remitted bipolar disorder patients with a hypothesis that the last episode recovered has implications on residual symptomatology. The study was carried out with 23 bipolar patients diagnosed as mania (BP-M) and 20 bipolar patients diagnosed as depression (BP-D) in their last episode, and with 22 healthy controls in a university hospital clinic. All patients were in remission for at least 6 months. In the assessment Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Stroop Test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), increased latency positive-evoked potentials (P300), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used cross-sectionally. In affective symptomatology, the BP-M group had higher YMRS scores, and the BP-D group had higher HAM-D scores compared to the controls. P300 test results revealed low amplitude in the BP-D group. In the AVLT, verbal learning and delayed recall were significantly lower in the two bipolar groups. The Stroop tasks were not different in the groups. Concerning the SFS, social withdrawal was impaired in the two bipolar groups, whereas dependency-competency was impaired in the BP-M and employment/occupation was impaired in the BP-D group. As a conclusion, bipolar patients recovering from depressive episode may experience more impairment in daily functioning due to residual depressive symptoms and impairment of attention and memory.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Affect / physiology
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antimanic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bipolar Disorder / psychology*
  • Cognition / physiology
  • Cognition Disorders / psychology
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Event-Related Potentials, P300 / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Social Adjustment
  • Social Behavior
  • Verbal Learning / physiology


  • Antimanic Agents
  • Antipsychotic Agents