The effect of season on cytokine expression in multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects

J Neuroimmunol. 2007 Aug;188(1-2):181-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2007.06.012. Epub 2007 Jul 12.


We measured the levels of IFNgamma, TNFalpha, Il-4 and Il-10 produced by mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy people, and those with the relapse/remitting form of multiple sclerosis. Blood was taken in summer and winter. Healthy people had a summer excess of Il-4, Il-10 and TNFalpha, and a winter excess of IFNgamma. Untreated MS cases had a summer excess of Il-10, whereas those treated with Interferon-beta had lower levels of all cytokines, and displayed no seasonal effect.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use
  • Interferon-beta / therapeutic use
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting / drug therapy
  • Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting / metabolism*
  • Seasons*


  • Cytokines
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Interferon-beta