Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic renal disease. Severe cardiac and arterial disorders such as left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, and arteriosclerosis of the large vessels are already evident in early renal disease, even in young patients. Despite major advances in dialysis therapy and treatment options for acute coronary syndromes, mortality remains high--up to 10-30 times higher than in the general population. The increased risk for cardiovascular disorders results from the additive effect of traditional risk factors, volume overload, and endocrine and metabolic abnormalities in uremia. During the course of the renal disease, the progression of CVD disease manifestations significantly influences outcome. Thus, preventive measures and optimal treatment are mandatory and should be among the main targets of early management of patients with chronic renal disease.