During the past decade, much progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms underlying plant hormone activity, from perception to nuclear events. However, the signaling mechanisms for abscisic acid (ABA) have remained largely obscure. Recent breakthroughs identifying FCA, which is an RNA-binding protein, the Mg-chelatase H subunit, and a G protein-coupled receptor as receptors for ABA provide a major leap forward in understanding the initial steps of ABA signaling mechanisms. Recent studies have also revealed the molecular mechanisms of second messenger production, protein modifications such as phosphorylation, and regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in the ABA response. Therefore, the connections between these events are also beginning to be determined. Here, we review recent progress and discuss the overall scheme of the ABA response mechanisms.