Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process whereby fully differentiated epithelial cells undergo transition to a mesenchymal phenotype giving rise to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in repair and scar formation following epithelial injury. The extent to which this process contributes to fibrosis following injury in the lung is a subject of active investigation. Recently, it was demonstrated that transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta induces EMT in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in vitro and in vivo, and epithelial and mesenchymal markers have been colocalized to hyperplastic type II (AT2) cells in lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), suggesting that AEC may exhibit extreme plasticity and serve as a source of fibroblasts and/or myofibroblasts in lung fibrosis. In this review, we describe the characteristic features of EMT and its mechanistic underpinnings. We further describe the contribution of EMT to fibrosis in adult tissues following injury, focusing especially on the critical role of TGF-beta and its downstream mediators in this process. Finally, we highlight recent descriptions of EMT in the lung and the potential implications of this process for the treatment of fibrotic lung disease. Treatment for fibrosis of the lung in diseases such as IPF has heretofore focused largely on amelioration of potential inciting processes such as inflammation. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further consideration of the cellular mechanisms of fibrogenesis in the lung and especially the role of the epithelium in this process, potentially leading to innovative avenues of investigation and treatment.