Effect of CPP-ACP paste on tooth mineralization: an FE-SEM study

J Oral Sci. 2007 Jun;49(2):115-20. doi: 10.2334/josnusd.49.115.


Milk and milk products, such as cheese, have been shown to exhibit anticariogenic properties in human and animal models. CPP-ACP shows an anti-caries effect by suppressing demineralization, enhancing remineralization, or possibly a combination of both. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP paste on demineralization by observing the treated tooth surface using an FE-SEM. The specimens were prepared by cutting enamel and dentin of bovine teeth into blocks. A few specimens were stored in 0.1 M lactic acid buffer solution for 10 min and then in artificial saliva (negative control). The remaining specimens were stored in a 10 times-diluted solution of CPP-ACP paste or a placebo paste containing no CPP-ACP for 10 min, followed by 10 min immersion in a demineralizing solution (pH = 4.75, Ca) twice a day before storage in artificial saliva. After treatment of the specimens for 3, 7, 21 and 28 days, they were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer solution, dehydrated in ascending grades of tert-butyl alcohol, and then transferred to a critical-point dryer. The surfaces were coated with a thin film of Au in a vacuum evaporator, and were observed under field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The SEM observations revealed different morphological features brought about by the various storage conditions. Demineralization of the enamel and dentin surfaces was more pronounced with the longer test period in the control and negative control specimens. On the other hand, enamel and dentin specimens treated with CPP-ACP paste revealed slight changes in their morphological features. From the morphological observations of the enamel and dentin surfaces, it could be considered that the CPP-ACP paste might prevent demineralization of the tooth structure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cariostatic Agents / pharmacology
  • Cariostatic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Caseins / pharmacology
  • Caseins / therapeutic use*
  • Cattle
  • Dental Enamel / drug effects
  • Dental Enamel / ultrastructure
  • Dentin / drug effects
  • Dentin / ultrastructure
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning / methods
  • Tooth Demineralization / prevention & control*


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Caseins
  • casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex