The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with the occurrence of dental trauma in permanent anterior teeth of schoolchildren in Recife, Brazil. It included a random sample of 1046 boys and girls aged 12 attending both public and private schools. The sample size was calculated using a 95% confidence interval level; a statistical significance of 5% (alpha); a sample power of 80%; and an odds ratio of 1.55. The sample selection was carried out in two stages: first, schools were selected by simple sampling, and then children were chosen using a proportionality coefficient. Data were collected through clinical examinations and interviews, after examiner calibration. Dental trauma was classified according to Andreasen criteria. Overjet was considered a risk factor when it presented values higher than 5 mm. Lip coverage was classified as adequate or inadequate, while obesity was considered according to National Center for Health Statistics procedures for the assessment of nutritional status. Data were summarized and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS. The prevalence of dental injuries was 10.5%. Boys experienced more injuries than girls, 12.2% and 8.8%, respectively (P > 0.05). Children attending public schools presented more traumatic injuries than those from private schools, 11.4% and 9.5%, respectively, but there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between traumatic dental injuries and overjet (P < 0.05); between traumatic dental injuries and inadequate lip coverage (P = 0.000), and between obesity and dental trauma (P < 0.05). It was concluded that boys attending public schools and presenting an overjet size >5 mm, inadequate lip coverage, and obesity were more likely to have traumatic dental injuries in Recife, Brazil.