Differential inhibition of UV-induced activation of NF kappa B and AP-1 by extracts from black raspberries, strawberries, and blueberries

Nutr Cancer. 2007;58(2):205-12. doi: 10.1080/01635580701328453.


Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that the transactivation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) plays an important mechanistic role in ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. We also demonstrated that a methanol extract (ME) fraction from black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis) (RO; RO-ME) inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activation of NF kappa B and AP-1 in cultured mouse epidermal cells. In the present study, we determined if RO-ME might also inhibit the induction of NF kappa B and AP-1 in mouse epidermal cells exposed to mid UV radiation (UVB) and short UV radiation (UVC) and whether methanol fractions from strawberries and blueberries would also be effective. Our results showed that RO-ME inhibited UVB-induced activation of NF kappa B in mouse epidermal cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner; however, the methanol fractions from strawberries and blueberries were ineffective. Interestingly, none of the fractions from all 3 berry types inhibited UVB- or UVC-induced activation of AP-1, suggesting that inhibition of UV-induced signaling pathways is specific for black raspberries and NF kappa B. Cyanidin-3-rutinoside, an anthocyanin found in abundance in black raspberries and not in strawberries or high-bush blueberries, was found to contribute to the inhibition of UVB-induced activation of NF kappa B. These results suggest that berries differ in their ability to influence signaling pathways leading to activation of NF kappa B and AP-1 when using UV light as the inducer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • 7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide / toxicity
  • Animals
  • Blueberry Plants / chemistry
  • Carcinogens / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Carcinogens / toxicity
  • Cell Line
  • DNA Adducts / antagonists & inhibitors
  • DNA Adducts / toxicity
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Fragaria / chemistry
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • NF-kappa B / drug effects
  • NF-kappa B / radiation effects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Species Specificity
  • Time Factors
  • Transcription Factor AP-1 / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Transcription Factor AP-1 / drug effects
  • Transcription Factor AP-1 / radiation effects


  • Carcinogens
  • DNA Adducts
  • NF-kappa B
  • Plant Extracts
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-DNA
  • 7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide