Disorders of sex development and gender identity outcome in adolescence and adulthood: understanding gender identity development and its clinical implications

Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2007 Jun;4(4):343-51.


This article reviews studies on gender identity outcome in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD). It appears that a high percentage of affected individuals suffer from gender dysphoria. However, these figures differ substantially among the various DSD and they never reach 100%. From the studies it also becomes clear that a distinction should be made between gender role behavior and gender identity. Put in a broader theoretical framework, there is now more evidence that biological factors influence the development of gender role behavior than gender identity. Developmental psychology studies add evidence that social and psychological factors play a role as well in gender development. Clinicians should be aware of, but not overestimate the influences of neurobiological factors in gender development.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Development
  • Adult
  • Disorders of Sex Development / psychology*
  • Disorders of Sex Development / therapy
  • Gender Identity*
  • Humans
  • Psychology, Adolescent*
  • Psychosexual Development*
  • Sexual Development*
  • Transsexualism / psychology*
  • Transsexualism / therapy
  • Treatment Outcome