Nanofabricated particles for engineered drug therapies: a preliminary biodistribution study of PRINT nanoparticles

J Control Release. 2007 Aug 16;121(1-2):10-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2007.05.027. Epub 2007 Jun 2.


A novel method for the fabrication of polymeric particles on the order of tens of nanometers to several microns is described. This imprint lithographic technique called PRINT (Particle Replication In Non-wetting Templates), takes advantage of the unique properties of elastomeric molds comprised of a low surface energy perfluoropolyether network, allowing the production of monodisperse, shape-specific nanoparticles from an extensive array of organic precursors. This engineered nature of particle production has a number of advantages over the construction of traditional nanoparticles such as liposomes, dendrimers, and colloidal precipitates. The gentle "top down" approach of PRINT enables the simultaneous and independent control over particle size and shape, composition, and surface functionality, and permits the loading of delicate cargos such as small organic therapeutics and biological macromolecules. Thus, this single tool serves as a comprehensive platform for the rational design and investigation of new nanocarriers in medicine, having applications ranging from therapeutics to advanced diagnostics. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted, demonstrating the future utility of PRINT particles as delivery vectors in nanomedicine. Monodisperse 200 nm poly(ethylene glycol)-based (PEG) particles were fabricated using PRINT methodology and characterized via scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Incubation with HeLa cells showed very little cytotoxicity, even at high concentrations. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of [(125)I]-labeled particles were studied in healthy mice following bolus tail vein administration. The particles were distributed mainly to the liver and the spleen with an apparent distribution t(1/2) of approximately 17 min followed by slow redistribution with a t(1/2) of 3.3 h. The volume of distribution for the central and peripheral compartments was found to be approximately 3 mL and 5 mL, respectively.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acrylates / chemistry
  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry
  • Biocompatible Materials / pharmacokinetics
  • Drug Therapy*
  • Ethers / chemistry
  • Fluorocarbons / chemistry
  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Light
  • Liposomes / chemistry
  • Mice
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanoparticles* / ultrastructure
  • Nanotechnology / instrumentation
  • Nanotechnology / methods*
  • Particle Size
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry
  • Polyethylene Glycols / pharmacokinetics
  • Propylene Glycols / chemistry
  • Scattering, Radiation
  • Styrenes / chemistry
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Acrylates
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Ethers
  • Fluorocarbons
  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Liposomes
  • Propylene Glycols
  • Styrenes
  • perfluoropolyether
  • trimethylolpropane
  • Polyethylene Glycols