Nonoperative management of spasticity in children

Childs Nerv Syst. 2007 Sep;23(9):943-56. doi: 10.1007/s00381-007-0396-4. Epub 2007 Jul 24.


Central to the longitudinal management of childhood hypertonia are nonsurgical treatments. These include physical and occupational therapy, electrical stimulation, orthotics, botulium toxin, and drugs. This manuscripts reviews these treatment modalities as well as evaluation tools available to assess their impact on a child's hypertonia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Botulinum Toxins / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Muscle Spasticity / therapy*
  • Pediatrics*
  • Physical Therapy Modalities
  • Physical Therapy Specialty


  • Botulinum Toxins