Among the classical transient receptor potential (TRPC) subfamily, TRPC1 is described as a mechanosensitive and store-operated channel proposed to be activated by hypoosmotic cell swelling and positive pipette pressure as well as regulated by the filling status of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. However, evidence for a physiological role of TRPC1 may most compellingly be obtained by the analysis of a TRPC1-deficient mouse model. Therefore, we have developed and analyzed TRPC1(-/-) mice. Pressure-induced constriction of cerebral arteries was not impaired in TRPC1(-/-) mice. Smooth muscle cells from cerebral arteries activated by hypoosmotic swelling and positive pipette pressure showed no significant differences in cation currents compared to wild-type cells. Moreover, smooth muscle cells of TRPC1(-/-) mice isolated from thoracic aortas and cerebral arteries showed no change in store-operated cation influx induced by thapsigargin, inositol-1,4,5 trisphosphate, and cyclopiazonic acid compared to cells from wild-type mice. In contrast to these results, small interference RNAs decreasing the expression of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) inhibited thapsigargin-induced store-operated cation influx, demonstrating that STIM1 and TRPC1 are mutually independent. These findings also imply that, as opposed to current concepts, TRPC1 is not an obligatory component of store-operated and stretch-activated ion channel complexes in vascular smooth muscle cells.