Expression of hGC-1 is correlated with differentiation of gastric carcinoma

Histopathology. 2007 Aug;51(2):157-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2007.02763.x.


Aims: The human G-CSF-stimulated clone-1 (hGC-1) gene encodes a 510-amino acid olfactomedin-related glycoprotein whose exact in vivo localization and function still remain elusive. The aim of this study was to demonstrate hGC-1 protein localization in the normal human gastrointestinal tract and to explore further a potential relationship between hGC-1 expression and gastric carcinoma.

Methods and results: A specific hGC-1 polyclonal antibody raised against purified hGC-1 protein was developed and characterized. Using immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that hGC-1 is expressed in the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon. The expression pattern of hGC-1 protein in 173 cases of gastric carcinoma was investigated and a striking correlation was demonstrated between hGC-1 expression and histological type and differentiation of gastric carcinoma. Enhanced hGC-1 expression was more frequently seen in intestinal-type adenocarcinoma, whereas loss of expression tended to occur in the diffuse type. hGC-1 was highly expressed in well or moderately differentiated cancers and was remarkably reduced or lost in poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumours.

Conclusions: These investigations have defined for the first time the expression pattern of hGC-1 in the normal human gastrointestinal tract and provide a novel and sensitive marker for the differentiation of gastric carcinoma.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / genetics
  • Adenocarcinoma / metabolism
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism
  • Gene Expression
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Protein Array Analysis
  • Stomach Neoplasms / genetics
  • Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • OLFM4 protein, human
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor