Inconsistency of reported uremic toxin concentrations

Artif Organs. 2007 Aug;31(8):600-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1594.2007.00434.x.


Discrepancies in reported uremic toxin concentrations were evaluated for 78 retention solutes. For this analysis, 378 publications were screened. Up to eight publications per toxin were retained. The highest and the lowest reported concentrations, as well as the median reported concentration were registered. The ratio between the highest and the lowest (H/L) concentrations and, for some solutes, also the ratio between the highest and the median (H/M) concentrations were calculated. The compounds were arbitrarily subdivided into three groups based on their H/L ratio: group A, H/L < 3 (n = 33); group B, 3 < H/L < 8.5 (n = 20); and group C, H/L > 8.5 (n = 25). Solutes of groups A and B showed a low to intermediate scatter, suggesting a homogeneity of reported data. Group C showed a more substantial scatter. For at least 10 compounds of group C, extremely divergent concentrations were registered (H/M > 5.5) using scatter plot analysis. For all solutes of groups A and B, the highest reported concentration could be used as a reference. For some solutes of group C and for the compounds showing a divergent scatter analysis, however, more refined directives should be followed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Humans
  • Uremia / blood*


  • Biomarkers