CK19 and CD99 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell (mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumors) and classical carcinoids of the vermiform appendix

Int J Surg Pathol. 2007 Jul;15(3):252-7. doi: 10.1177/1066896907302118.


The immunoexpression of CK19 recently has been identified as a marker of poor prognosis in pancreatic endocrine tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conversely, the loss of expression of CD99 has been suggested to play a role in the tumorigenesis and dedifferentiation and is associated with poor outcome in some malignancies. The purpose of this study was to explore CK19 and CD99 immunostaining in mucin-producing neuroendocrine (goblet cell) and classical carcinoids of the appendix. Eighteen goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs) and 20 classic carcinoids were stained with CK19, CD99, and Ki-67, and these results were correlated with known pathological features of aggression: extent of invasion, mitoses, necrosis, and histological pattern. All 18 GCCs were CK19 strongly positive, whereas 16/20 classic carcinoids were also CK19 positive. Fourteen of 18 GCCs and 14/20 classic carcinoids were CD99 positive. CK19/CD99 immunoexpression did not correlate with extent of tumor invasion and mesoappendiceal extension, mitotic activity, Ki-67 labeling index, presence of extracellular mucinous pools dissecting muscle, and angiolymphatic and perineural/neural invasion. There is no difference in the immunostaining for CK19 and CD99 between GCCs and classic carcinoids, and both types of neuroendocrine tumor show the same extent of expression of both markers.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • 12E7 Antigen
  • Antigens, CD / genetics
  • Antigens, CD / metabolism*
  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism
  • Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism*
  • Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / genetics
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism*
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Keratin-19 / genetics
  • Keratin-19 / metabolism*
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology


  • 12E7 Antigen
  • Antigens, CD
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • CD99 protein, human
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Keratin-19