Plasma membrane proteins serve essential functions for cells, interacting with both cellular and extracellular components, structures and signaling molecules. Additionally, plasma membrane proteins comprise more than two-thirds of the known protein targets for existing drugs. Consequently, defining membrane proteomes is crucial to understanding the role of plasma membranes in fundamental biological processes and for finding new targets for action in drug development. MS-based identification methods combined with chromatographic and traditional cell-biology techniques are powerful tools for proteomic mapping of proteins from organelles. However, the separation and identification of plasma membrane proteins remains a challenge for proteomic technology because of their hydrophobicity and microheterogeneity. Creative approaches to solve these problems and potential pitfalls will be discussed. Finally, a representative overview of the impressive achievements in this field will also be given.