Genome-wide integration site analyses showed that Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)- and lentivirus-derived vectors integrate preferentially into the coding regions of genes, posing a risk of insertional mutagenesis. Avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses (ASLVs) were previously reported to have a weak preference for gene-coding regions in a cell line study as compared with human immunodeficiency virus and MoMLV; however, thus far these vectors have not been studied for their potential efficacy in transduction of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells. In this study we investigated for the first time the ability of ASLV-derived RCAS (replication-competent ALV LTR [avian leukosis virus long terminal repeat] with a splice acceptor) vectors to transduce rhesus macaque hematopoietic progenitors and long-term repopulating cells, in an autologous transplantation model. RCAS vectors can efficiently and stably transduce rhesus macaque CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells with an efficiency of transduction of up to 34% ex vivo. In two animals transplanted with RCAS vector-transduced autologous CD34+ cells, highly polyclonal hematopoietic reconstitution with sustained gene-marking levels in myeloid and lymphoid lineages was observed up to 18 months post-transplantation. These findings are encouraging and suggest that this vector system should be explored and further optimized for gene therapy applications targeting hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.