The purpose of this article is to study morbidity and mortality conferences and their conformity to medical incident analysis models. Structured interviews with morbidity and mortality conference leaders of 12 (75%) clinical departments at Johns Hopkins Hospital were conducted. Reported morbidity and mortality conference goals included medical management (75%), teaching (58%), and patient safety and quality improvement (42%). Methods for case identification, selection, presentation, and analysis varied among departments. Morbidity and mortality conferences were attended mostly by physicians from the respective departments. One (8%) department had a standard approach for eliciting input from all providers on the case, another (8%) used a structured tool to explore underlying system factors, and 7 (58%) departments had a plan for assigning follow-up on recommendations. There is wide variation in how morbidity and mortality conferences are conducted across departments and little conformity to known models for analyzing medical incidents. Models for best practices in conducting morbidity and mortality conferences are needed.