The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: a pilot study

Phytother Res. 2007 Nov;21(11):1109-12. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2207.


This phase 0, double-blind, repeated within subject, randomized pilot study examined CD25 expression on T cells after ingestion of three commonly used herbs: Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra, administered singly and in combination. CD25 expression on T cells was significantly increased for subjects ingesting Echinacea at 24 h with notable increases in activation from Astragalus and Glycyrrhiza. CD25 expression remains elevated with daily use of Echinacea for at least 7 days.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Astragalus propinquus*
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Echinacea*
  • Gene Expression / drug effects
  • Glycyrrhiza*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / metabolism*
  • Lymphocyte Activation / drug effects*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Plant Preparations / pharmacology*
  • Time Factors


  • Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
  • Plant Preparations