Invasive aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients. Early diagnosis and therapy are important to improve prognosis in these patients. Difficulties in establishing an early diagnosis have prompted investigations towards new and alternative diagnostic methods. During the last decade, PCR-based assays have emerged as valuable experimental tools to improve diagnostic workup and clinical management of patients with suspected or proven invasive aspergillosis. However, implementation of these molecular tools in the routine diagnostic laboratory is hampered by a lack of standardization.