The current clinical diagnosis of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease demands at least one specific [corrected] VHL manifestation in a patient with familial VHL disease, or, in a [corrected] sporadic patient, at least two or more hemangioblastomas or a single hemangioblastoma in combination with a typical visceral lesion. To evaluate this definition, we studied the frequency of germline VHL mutation in three patients groups: (i) multi-organ involvement (classic VHL), (ii) limited VHL manifestations meeting criteria (non-classic VHL) and (iii) patients with VHL-associated tumors not meeting current diagnostic VHL criteria. In addition, we validated multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) as a rapid and reliable quantitative method for the identification of germline VHL deletions. The frequency of germline VHL mutations was very high in classic VHL cases with multi-organ involvement (95%), lower in non-classic cases that meet current diagnostic criteria but have limited VHL manifestations or single-organ involvement (24%) and low (3.3%), but tangible in cases not meeting current diagnostic VHL criteria. The detection of germline VHL mutations in patients or families with limited VHL manifestations, or single-organ involvement is relevant for follow-up of probands and early identification of at-risk relatives.