Endocytosis regulates many cellular signaling processes by controlling the number of functional receptors available at the cell surface. Conversely, some signaling processes regulate the endocytic pathway. Furthermore, various cellular signaling events appear to occur on endosome membranes. The endocytic pathway, by providing a set of dynamic and biochemically specialized endomembrane structures that physically communicate with the plasma membrane, is increasingly viewed as a highly flexible scaffold for mediating precise spatiotemporal control and transport of diverse biological signals. General principles of endosome-based signaling are beginning to emerge but, in many cases, the physiological significance of signaling on the endocytic pathway remains poorly understood.