Background: Alopecia after birth-related caput succedaneum is an extremely rare complication.
Case: The case of a child with permanent alopecia due to birth-related caput succedaneum is presented. After delivery with vacuum extraction, caput succedaneum at the left occipitoparietal region of the neonate's head was noted, which subsided within a week, leaving a circular necrotic crust and finally a circular bald area. At age 4, the child was referred at a tertiary center for the management of alopecia. Treatment initially consisted of the expansion of the hair-bearing skin adjacent to the bald area, which was excised at a second stage and covered with the expanded skin. A pleasing esthetic result was achieved.
Conclusion: Neonatal alopecia is a rare birth-associated complication. Premature rupture of the membranes, prolonged second stage of the labor, and prolonged vacuum extraction time may be important features in the pathogenesis of this complication. In case of permanent alopecia, excellent esthetic results can be achieved with the use of reconstructive plastic surgery techniques.