Background: Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade can be accomplished by chemical encapsulation of rocuronium by sugammadex, a modified gamma-cyclodextrin derivative. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex in reversing rocuronium-induced profound neuromuscular blockade at 5 min in American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II patients.
Methods: Forty-five American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II patients (aged 18-64 yr) scheduled to undergo surgical procedures (anticipated anesthesia duration >/= 90 min) were randomly assigned to a phase II, multicenter, assessor-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel, dose-finding study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and an opioid. Profound neuromuscular blockade was induced with 1.2 mg/kg rocuronium bromide. Sugammadex (2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, or 16.0 mg/kg) or placebo (0.9% saline) was then administered 5 min after the administration of rocuronium. Neuromuscular function was monitored by acceleromyography, using train-of-four nerve stimulation. Recovery time was the time from the start of administration of sugammadex or placebo, to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments were performed on the day of the operation and during the postoperative and follow-up period.
Results: A total of 43 patients received either sugammadex or placebo. Increasing doses of sugammadex reduced the mean recovery time from 122 min (spontaneous recovery) to less than 2 min in a dose-dependent manner. Signs of recurrence of blockade were not observed. No serious adverse events related to sugammadex were reported. Two adverse events possibly related to sugammadex were reported in two patients (diarrhea and light anesthesia); however, both patients recovered without sequelae.
Conclusions: Sugammadex rapidly and effectively reversed profound rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in humans and was well tolerated.