Structural changes in ceramic veneered three-unit implant-supported restorations as a consequence of static and dynamic loading

Dent Mater. 2008 Apr;24(4):464-70. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2007 Jul 31.


Objectives: Static implant loading caused by non-passive restorations may cause technical complications. As metal-ceramic restorations are most common in implant prosthodontics, the objective of the study was to investigate the effect of static and dynamic loading upon the stability of the ceramic veneer of implant-supported fixed partial dentures (FPDs).

Methods: A total of 10 groups of three-unit implant FPDs with five samples each were investigated in the conditions after fabrication, static loading and dynamic loading (chewing simulator, 20,000 cycles, 100N). The fluorescent penetrant method (FPM) was applied to detect microcracks at the cervical and occlusal aspects of the FPD abutments. Statistical analysis was performed based on the number of microcracks (t-test) and the presence of chipping fractures (Exact Fisher test) with the level of significance set at alpha=0.05.

Results: Static and dynamic loading led to an increase both in number of microcracks and frequency of chipping fractures. After static loading, the screw-retained FPDs cast in one piece revealed significantly lower numbers of cervical microcracks than did the cementable restorations fabricated from repositioning technique impressions (p=0.003). The screw-retained FPDs which were fabricated using premachined gold cylinders showed the highest numbers of cracks and chipping fractures both after static and dynamic loading.

Significance: Static loading may damage the ceramic layer of implant-supported restorations. The use of prefabricated components may cause increased numbers of microcracks due to the lack of bonding oxides.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bite Force
  • Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported*
  • Dental Restoration Failure
  • Dental Stress Analysis*
  • Dental Veneers*
  • Denture Design
  • Denture Retention / methods
  • Denture, Partial, Fixed*
  • Fluorescence
  • Metal Ceramic Alloys / chemistry*
  • Models, Dental
  • Weight-Bearing


  • Metal Ceramic Alloys