HPV infection of both the genital tract and oral cavity of HIV+ men and women is increased. HPV-related pathology is also increased in the HIV+ individuals, usually with further increases seen for those HIV+ individuals with lower CD4 cell counts. Fortunately, the rates of cervical cancer and anal cancer are relatively low and not related to CD4 cell count. Treatment of the HIV+ individual with HPV-related disease is challenging and requires close long-term follow-up to prevent recurrent disease. The mechanism of how HPV and HIV interact is still not known but is more likely to be linked to immune suppression rather than a direct interaction between viruses. The newly developed HPV vaccines will likely have a significant impact on HPV-related disease in immunocompetent individuals. It remains to be seen what impact these vaccine will have on the immune depressed.