Human Papillomavirus Infection and Disease in the HIV+ Individual

Cancer Treat Res. 2007;133:185-213. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-46816-7_7.


HPV infection of both the genital tract and oral cavity of HIV+ men and women is increased. HPV-related pathology is also increased in the HIV+ individuals, usually with further increases seen for those HIV+ individuals with lower CD4 cell counts. Fortunately, the rates of cervical cancer and anal cancer are relatively low and not related to CD4 cell count. Treatment of the HIV+ individual with HPV-related disease is challenging and requires close long-term follow-up to prevent recurrent disease. The mechanism of how HPV and HIV interact is still not known but is more likely to be linked to immune suppression rather than a direct interaction between viruses. The newly developed HPV vaccines will likely have a significant impact on HPV-related disease in immunocompetent individuals. It remains to be seen what impact these vaccine will have on the immune depressed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • HIV / immunology*
  • HIV Seropositivity / complications*
  • Humans
  • Mouth / virology
  • Neoplasms / virology
  • Papillomaviridae / classification
  • Papillomaviridae / genetics
  • Papillomaviridae / physiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / complications*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology