Background: Recent studies have raised concerns about potential increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in type 2 diabetes patients treated with some peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonists.
Objective: To ascertain the risk of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in type 2 diabetes patients treated with pioglitazone relative to rosiglitazone.
Methodology: Using data covering 2003-2006 from a large health care insurer in the US, a retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients who initiated treatment with pioglitazone or rosiglitazone. The hazard ratio (HR) of incident hospitalization for AMI after initiation of treatment with these drugs was estimated from multivariate Cox's proportional hazards survival analysis; similarly, the HR was ascertained for hospitalization for the composite endpoint of AMI or coronary revascularization (CR).
Results: A total of 29 911 eligible patients were identified in the database; 14 807 in the pioglitazone and 15 104 in the rosiglitazone group. Baseline demographics, medical history, and dispensed medications were generally well balanced between groups. The unadjusted HR for hospitalization for AMI was 0.82, 95%CI: 0.67-1.01. After adjustment for baseline covariates the HR was 0.78, 95%CI: 0.63-0.96. The adjusted HR for the composite of AMI or CR was 0.85, 95%CI: 0.75-0.98.
Conclusion: This retrospective cohort study showed that pioglitazone, in comparison with rosiglitazone, is associated with a 22% relative risk reduction of hospitalization for AMI in patients with type 2 diabetes.