Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) causes a demyelinating disease (DD) due to infection of macrophages, stimulation of macrophage Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and TLR7 pathways, activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)s, and production of macrophages cytokines. Because expression of IL-27, a macrophage cytokine composed of p28 and EBI3 subunits, has been implicated in DD, we examined IL-27 subunit mRNA expression during TMEV infection of RAW264.7 cells, a macrophage cell line. TMEV infection of RAW264.7 cells did not affect cell viability, resulted in viral RNA replication, as well as p28 and EBI3 expression. Expression of p28 in TMEV-infected RAW264.7 cells depended on TLR3 and TLR7, as well as JNK but not p38 or ERK MAPKs. Since TMEV causes DD in SJL/J but not B10.S mice we determined the difference in expression of IL-27 subunit mRNA in SJL/J compared to B10.S macrophages. SJL/J macrophages expressed significantly more p28 mRNA after TMEV infection and after stimulation with TLR3 and TLR7 agonists compared with B10.S macrophages. Therefore, macrophages expression of IL-27 p28 mRNA in response to TMEV is due to activation of TLR3, TLR7, and JNK MAPKs pathways.