The aim of this randomized prospective study was to compare the efficacy of endoscopic versus standard microsurgical excision of pituitary adenomas, and to evaluate the merits and demerits of each approach. Twenty patients with a pituitary adenoma were randomly divided into two groups comprising of 10 cases each. Ten cases were operated by endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach by endoscopic rhinologist (EETSS group) and other 10 cases were excised by microsurgical endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach by a neurosurgeon (SMETSS group). In both the groups complete excision was achieved in 50% of patients (unpaired t-test, p = 1.00). In EETSS group mean operative time was 64.5 +/- 19.16 min (range 50 - 100 min). In the SMETSS group, mean operative time was 75.5 +/- 18.48 min (range 55 - 120 min; unpaired t-test, p = 0.64, statistically not significant). In the EETSS group blood loss ranged between 100 and 190 ml (mean 100 +/- 42.16 ml). In the SMETSS group blood loss ranged between 50 and 250 ml (mean loss of 120 +/- 58.69 ml; unpaired t-test, p < 0.05, statistically significant). Postoperative nasoseptal complications were more common in SMETSS group (Chi-square test, p < 0.05, statistically significant). Endoscopic approach provides a wide surgical field and broad lateral vision making easier distinction of tumour tissue: gland and gland diaphragm interface. Thus, there is less blood loss and nasoseptal complications, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in operative time and complete tumour removal.