Mechanism of GlvA from Bacillus subtilis: a detailed kinetic analysis of a 6-phospho-alpha-glucosidase from glycoside hydrolase family 4

Biochemistry. 2007 Aug 28;46(34):9840-52. doi: 10.1021/bi700536p. Epub 2007 Aug 4.


GlvA, a 6-phospho-alpha-glucosidase from Bacillus subtilis assigned to glycoside hydrolase family 4, catalyzes the hydrolysis of maltose 6'-phosphate via a redox-elimination-addition mechanism requiring NAD+ as cofactor. In contrast to previous reports and consistent with the proposed mechanism, GlvA is only activated in the presence of the nicotinamide cofactor in its oxidized, and not the reduced NADH, form. Significantly, GlvA catalyzes the hydrolysis of both 6-phospho-alpha- and 6-phospho-beta-glucosides containing activated leaving groups such as p-nitrophenol and does so with retention and inversion, respectively, of anomeric configuration. Mechanistic details of the individual bond cleaving and forming steps were probed using a series of 6-phospho-alpha- and 6-phospho-beta-glucosides. Primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were measured for both classes of substrates in which either the C2 or the C3 protons have been substituted with a deuterium, consistent with C-H bond cleavage at each center being partially rate-limiting. Kinetic parameters were also determined for 1-[2H]-substituted substrates, and depending on the substrates and the reaction conditions, the measurements of kcat and kcat/KM produced either no KIEs or inverse KIEs. In conjunction with results of Brønsted analyses with both aryl 6-phospho-alpha- and beta-glucosides, the kinetic data suggest that GlvA utilizes an E1cb mechanism analogous to that proposed for the Thermotoga maritima BglT, a 6-phospho-beta-glucosidase in glycoside hydrolase family 4 (Yip, V.L.Y et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 571-580). The pattern of isotope effects measured and the observation of very similar kcat values for all substrates, including unactivated and natural substrates, indicate that the oxidation and deprotonation steps are rate-limiting steps in essentially all cases. This mechanism permits the cleavage of both alpha- and beta-glycosides within the same active site motif and, for activated substrates that do not require acid catalysis for cleavage, within the same active site, yielding the product sugar-6-phosphate in the same anomeric form in the two cases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacillus subtilis / enzymology*
  • Binding Sites
  • Catalysis
  • Deuterium Exchange Measurement
  • Deuterium Oxide
  • Glycosides
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Hydrolysis
  • Kinetics
  • NAD / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Substrate Specificity
  • alpha-Glucosidases / chemistry*
  • alpha-Glucosidases / metabolism*


  • Glycosides
  • NAD
  • maltose-6'-phosphate glucosidase
  • alpha-Glucosidases
  • Deuterium Oxide