Generalization of Faraday's Law to include nonconservative spin forces

Phys Rev Lett. 2007 Jun 15;98(24):246601. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.246601. Epub 2007 Jun 15.


The usual Faraday's Law E=-dPhi/dt determines an electromotive force E which accounts only for forces resulting from the charge of electrons. In ferromagnetic materials, in general, there exist nonconservative spin forces which also contribute to E. These might be included in Faraday's Law if the magnetic flux Phi is replaced by [Planck's constant/(-e)]gamma, where gamma is a Berry phase suitably averaged over the electron spin direction. These contributions to E represent the requirements of energy conservation in itinerant ferromagnets with time dependent order parameters.