A plethora of medical literature has been published discussing the demographics, risk factors, anatomic distribution, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of stress fractures. However, the literature contains a void regarding the rehabilitation and preventive aspects of this frequent injury. This article briefly reviews the risk factors, common sites, and sport-specific and gender-specific stress fractures. In addition, the common clinical presentation, physical examination findings, and diagnostic evaluation are discussed, including high-risk stress fractures. An in-depth review of the treatment and prevention of stress fractures in women is also provided.