Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is dominantly expressed in the leptomeninges surrounding the brain and secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid as beta-trace, a major cerebrospinal fluid protein. To examine the interaction between the leptomeninges and the brain parenchyma, we co-cultured rat leptomeningeal cells with cells dissociated from the neonatal rat cortex and found that the production of L-PGDS was remarkably increased after the co-cultivation. A similar increase in L-PGDS production was observed by the co-culturing of the leptomeningeal cells with cells dissociated from astrocyte-rich cultures or with 1321-N1 astrocytoma cells. When a crude membrane fraction prepared from 1321-N1 cells was added to leptomeningeal cell cultures, L-PGDS gene expression was slowly increased up to 48 h after the addition. These results indicate that leptomeningeal cells enhance their L-PGDS production by a slow activation of L-PGDS gene expression through their contact with astrocytes.