A survey aimed at studying the presence and distribution of fleas on dogs was conducted in an area of southern Italy. Between February 2005 and 2006, dogs were examined for fleas at four private veterinary clinics, with a twice-weekly frequency. Fleas were detected on 246 (17.9%) out of the 1376 tested dogs. A total of 960 fleas were sampled and two species were identified, namely Ctenocephalides felis felis (16.3% of the tested dogs) and Ctenocephalides canis (1.5% of the tested dogs). The results of the logistic regression model showed a significant association between the flea positivity and the following independent variables: housed with other dogs or cats and utilization, i.e. increasing prevalence from pets to guard, hunting, and stray dogs. Clinical symptoms (pruritus, alopecia, and flea allergic dermatitis) were also observed in some of the flea positive dogs. Flea infestation was detected throughout the year, although the prevalence was higher during the period between June and October.