Reversible protein acetylation is a ubiquitous means for the rapid control of diverse cellular processes. Acetyltransferase enzymes transfer the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to lysine residues, while deacetylase enzymes catalyze removal of the acetyl group by hydrolysis or by an NAD(+)-dependent reaction. Propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA), like acetyl-CoA, is a high energy product of fatty acid metabolism and is produced through a similar chemical reaction. Because acetyl-CoA is the donor molecule for protein acetylation, we investigated whether proteins can be propionylated in vivo, using propionyl-CoA as the donor molecule. We report that the Salmonella enterica propionyl-CoA synthetase enzyme PrpE is propionylated in vivo at lysine 592; propionylation inactivates PrpE. The propionyl-lysine modification is introduced by bacterial Gcn-5-related N-acetyltransferase enzymes and can be removed by bacterial and human Sir2 enzymes (sirtuins). Like the sirtuin deacetylation reaction, sirtuin-catalyzed depropionylation is NAD(+)-dependent and produces a byproduct, O-propionyl ADP-ribose, analogous to the O-acetyl ADP-ribose sirtuin product of deacetylation. Only a subset of the human sirtuins with deacetylase activity could also depropionylate substrate. The regulation of cellular propionyl-CoA by propionylation of PrpE parallels regulation of acetyl-CoA by acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase and raises the possibility that propionylation may serve as a regulatory modification in higher organisms.